What is stem cells?
Stem cells (stem cells, SC) is in the body is primitive cells (stem cell self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potential under certain conditions can induced to differentiate into nerve cells, liver cells, myocardial cells that form the body of 220 various functional cells), is our body's cells of origin, is the formation of the primitive cell of every tissue and organ in the human body. Stem cells exist in the early embryo, placenta and its appendages, bone marrow, peripheral blood and adult tissues.
According to the developmental potential of stem cells, it is divided into three types: all stem cells (stem cell totipotent, TSC), pluripotent stem cells (stem cell pluripotent) and single stem cells (stem cell unipotent). According to the development stage of stem cells, embryonic stem cells (stem cell embryonic, ES cells) and adult stem cells (stem cell somatic) were divided into the embryonic stem cells
Classification by developmental potential:
Pluripotent stem cells, which have the potential to differentiate into stem cells of all tissues and organs, which have the potential to form a complete individual. Embryonic stem cell, es.
Pluripotent stem cells, which have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell tissues, but have lost the ability to develop into a complete individual. Such as mesenchymal stem cells, skin stem cells, etc..
Single stem cells: only two types of cell differentiation, one type or one type. Stem cells, muscle cells in the basal layer of epithelial tissue.
Classification by developmental stages:
- embryonic stem cell by the early embryonic cell mass (the inner cell mass (ICM)) (morula and blastocysts and primordial germ cells, primordial germ cells (PGCs) by in vitro differentiation inhibited culture screening out a kind of pluripotent cells. With the development of the Almighty, it can self renew and have the ability to differentiate into all tissues and organs of adult animals.
- into somatic stem cells: exists in a differentiated tissue in undifferentiated cells, the cells can self-renewal and can be specialized to form cellular components of the type of organization. Adult stem cells are present in various tissues and organs of the body. Adult stem cells in adult tissues are mostly in a state of dormancy under normal conditions, and can show different degrees of regeneration and renewal in pathological state or under exogenous induction.
mesenchymal stem cells
MSC exists in a variety of tissues, in 1991 Caplan the bone marrow can be adhered to the surface of the plastic culture plate, in vitro highly amplified, and can be differentiated cell group named MSC.
MSc is a multipotent stem cell a, derived from the mesoderm, initially from the bone marrow isolated, but later found in various tissues such as skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, bone marrow, umbilical cord, umbilical cord blood, tissue of deciduous teeth, amniotic membrane and placenta and. MSC have the ability of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potential of adult stem cells, can differentiate into skeletal muscle, cartilage tissue, bone marrow and fat by the differentiation of the mesodermal tissues and organs of the organization, but also found between mesenchymal stem cells may also non mesodermal differentiation in differentiation of liver cells, nerve cells and epithelial cells.
Stem cell source for clinical use
Autologous peripheral blood, autologous bone marrow, fetal appendages (umbilical cord blood, umbilical cord, amniotic membrane, etc.)
Principles of stem cell transplantation in the treatment of disease
1, replacement and repair of dead and injured cells
2, activation of dormant and in the inhibition of the state of the cell
3, the next secretion of the role of (secrete neurotrophic factor, anti apoptotic factor, etc.)
4, immune regulation mechanism
5, the promotion of cell electrical capacity, electrical conductivity of the recovery (such as the secretion of mesenchymal stem cells to help connect the cell protein to connect, and promote the opening of ion channels, etc.)